It is well recognised that university spin-offs play an important role both in innovation and economic stimulation. However, we can see a lack of women scientists and engineers participating in the development and formation of university spin-offs.  In fact, although the proportion of woman researchers is increasing across Europe, they still publish fewer research papers, are less internationally mobile, and form part of fewer start-ups than men. 
While this doesn’t negatively affect the number of downloads and citations of papers written by women and women in general have a tendency to have a slightly larger proportion of interdisciplinary research, it is important to consider the entrepreneurial effects . For example, although women represent around 40% of researchers, among patent applications, women inventors were less than 15% in 2015. In addition, men seem to prevail in management positions of spin-off companies. For example, in a study of 131 companies, of 309 directors, only 49 were women. 
With more gender equality activism than ever before, one might ask how this is still possible. And the answer is disappointing: gender bias, lack of appropriate support, and limited access to the right networks.  These results can be seen when identical inventions proposals were given to Technology Transfer Offices, submitted under female and male identities, and the males were more likely to receive support . And it is seen again when looked at from the perspective of venture capitalists, where research shows that women are perceived as lacking necessary qualities for success .
Therefore, we must conclude that there is still some preference for males in the world of academic entrepreneurship. Hopefully, little by little, we will be able to reach a world where a person’s gender doesn’t define their ability to start a business.